Tag Archives: voip glossary

Commonly Used VoIP Abbreviations for Terms

V1 VoIP glossary of commonly used VoIP abbreviations for new resellersWhen you are new to the VoIP reseller world you will hear a lot of abbreviations for popular VoIP services, devices and solutions. At V1 VoIP we know how important it is for resellers to stay up to date with the latest abbreviations and acronyms.

As a V1 VoIP reseller, you know how SIP services can be beneficial for hosted PBX customers. But be prepared for those customers to ask you what SIP and PBX are, and even what VoIP stands for. You better know.

The following abbreviations are the bread and butter of the VoIP industry. Whether you are making your introduction to VoIP or just looking to familiarize yourself with some of the ones you know–or just pretend to–here are some of the ones you should!

VoIP: Voice over Internet Protocol. Yes, that’s protocol not phone. VoIP is a family of technologies, methodologies, communication protocols, and transmission techniques for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol networks, such as the Internet. It essentially means you are using the Internet for phone service.

ATA: Analog Telephone adapter. This device coverts analog voice signals to digital signals which can then be transmitted over the Internet.

BYOD: Bring Your Own Device. Some VoIP services allow a person to supply their own equipment or ATA, which in this case means they can BYOD.

CDR: Call Record Detail. This details about a specific call that includes duration, origination, destination, and billable information, as well as other pertinent information.

CSR: Customer Service Record. This is required for all phone numbers that will show information that is tied to that number including services, billing activity, associated address and service orders.

DID: Direct Inward Dialing. It’s your phone number. DIDs refers to a phone number that a customer subscribes to.

IVR: Interactive Voice Response. This integrated software information system speaks to callers and uses menus and voice responses. Think of calling someone and an automated voice picks up and says press 1 to talk to so-and-so, press 2 to talk to so-and-so. By using touch-tone keypad entries to interact with the software, you get voice responses with real time data.

LNP: Local Number Portability. Your customer will ask if they can keep their phone number. LNP is the reason why they can. LNP is the ability of a telephone customer to retain their phone number if they switch to another telephone provider.

PBX: Private Branch Exchange. V1 VoIP has created a hosted PBX with our software, while those using our PSTN service must have their own hardware for a PBX.

POTS: Plain Old Telephone Service. Think the old school way of phone service. The familiar single phone line, single phone number system that has been in existence for many years.

PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network. As one of our services, PSTN Gateway is a solution for those who implement, own, and manage their own PBX. Everything is on a pay-as-you-go basis, and includes inbound, outbound, and toll-free inbound calling.

SIP: Session Initiation Protocol. SIP is a signaling protocol for Internet conferencing, telephony, and instant messaging. It is a request-response protocol, dealing with requests from clients and responses from servers. initiating an interactive user session.

WAN: Wide Area Network. This refers to telecommunication networks that cover a large area, linking across regional or national boundaries. It is most effective for business and government entities that communicate with employees and customers from various locations.

There is no such thing as a dumb question. If there is an abbreviation or acronym you don’t know or want to know what it means, please ask us! We are happy to explain what all these letters mean and how they can help you.

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Glossary of VoIP Predictive Dialer Terms

V1 VoIP offers predictive dialer termination glossary of definitions and terms for private label VoIP resellersIf you are interested in getting into the predictive dialer VoIP game, there will be common terms thrown around and it is wise to familiarize yourself with the vernacular. Here are some definitions to V1 VoIP predictive dialers our resellers should know:

Predictive Dialer: Predictive dialing was introduced for the purpose of increasing efficiency within calling centers. They are computer based system that automatically dial groups of telephone numbers, and then passes live calls to available agents. Predictive dialers utilize sophisticated algorithms to speed up and slow down the call rate based on, number of available agents, number of available lines, the campaign’s average call time and other statistical information.

Auto dialer: makes thousands of calls screening for busy signals, no answers, fax machines while detecting answering machines/voicemail and delivers pre-recorded messages. In VoIP,the Auto Dialer is a low cost solution for voice broadcasting.

Dialer: generic term for any computer-driven device that places outbound calls and connects the answered calls to an agent or operator.

Agent: telephone professional to whom a predictive dialer sends the ready call.

Quick Connect: Quick Connect allows your agents to log in one-to-one with a phone line. This option is great for B2B purposes, especially when your agent needs to be on the phone line through the entire call.

Fixed Dialing: Fixed Dialing gives your call center manager the power to manually set the volume of calls. The software will then automatically dial a predetermined number of lines per agent. Fixed dialing is ideal for political campaigns, charity campaigns, and other situations drop call ratios are not a factor.

If you have heard a predictive dialer term that you are unfamiliar with, don’t be shy! We are happy to answer your questions with regards to predictive dialer traffic and get you started in it.

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Don’t Sound Like a VoIP Newb Know the Lingo

The fastest way to sound like a VoIP newb to those in the industry to is to confuse some of the most used VoIP jargon. V1 VoIP resellers can sound brilliant to a prospective client by using the latest VoIP acronyms and even more so by explaining what they are to their interested parties. If you are a new VoIP reseller, here is a glossary of the VoIP lingo V1 VoIP says you need to know:

BV – Business VoIP
BV refers to a class of professional phone systems that can make and take business quality phone calls via the Internet. Business VoIP phone systems typically offer features such as voicemail, call transfer, and call conferencing, among many others.

BYOD – Bring Your Own Device
Some VoIP services operate under a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) policy, where the customers are responsible for purchasing IP phones that best suit their businesses.

DID – Direct Inward Dialing
Think of it as your phone number! This allows you to assign unique numbers (or extensions) to all the employees on the phone system – without having to route new physical lines in the office.

ITSP – Internet Telephony Service Provider
V1 VoIP is an ITSP because we provide Internet telecommunications services based on VoIP.

LAN – Local Area Network
A Local Area Network connects computers within a set area, such as a house, a school, a bank, and other facilities. Your IP phones will plug into your LAN, through wall jacks, routers, and other Ethernet ports, to access your VoIP service. The LAN must have an active Internet connection for your VoIP phones to make and take calls.

Setup VoIP phones to your LAN
LNP – Local Number Portability

Local Number Portability (LNP), or number porting, allows you to keep your current phone number when you switch from one communications provider to another.

PBX – Private Branch Exchange
Private Branch Exchange refers to the business phone system. A PBX can call landline phones, other VoIP lines, and dialed extensions on an enterprise level. There are several different kinds of PBXes: including analog, on-premise and hosted PBX.

PSTN – Public Switch Telephone Network
The Public Switch Telephone Network is a series of networks that includes telephone lines, fiber optic cables, cellular networks, and communications satellites. This interconnected series of networks allows different kinds of phones, such as landline and mobile devices, to communicate with each other.

QoS – Quality of Service
QoS measures the performance and quality of a VoIP network. A bad QoS can lead to dropped or distorted calls. QoS is normally rated from the perspective of the user.

SIP – Session Initiation Protocol
SIP is an Internet protocol that powers communications over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. SIP is the primary engine of many VoIP phone systems.

UC or UCaaS – Unified Communications or Unified Communications as a Service
UC refers to the integration of various communications services, such as voice, video, chat, email, voicemail, among others, under a single user-interface.

VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol
Oh you better learn this one! VoIP is technology that delivers voice communications, streaming video, and other media over the Internet. VoIP is also used as shorthand for a wide variety of VoIP services, including hosted PBX, on-premise PBX, and SIP trunking.

When your customers ask you what an acronym means, be prepared with the right answer. It will help you close the sale.

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Cloud Hosted PBX V1 VoIP Terms to Know

V1 VoIP presents a glossary of terms and definitions about cloud hosted PBX Voip usage and equipmentV1 VoIP offers cloud hosted PBX services and solutions for resellers. PBX is an abbreviation for Private Branch Exchange, a private telephone network used within an enterprise. Did you know what PBX actually stood for? VoIP terms are added all the time as the technology grows. If you are new to VoIP or cloud hosted PBX, here is a list of terms that V1 VoIP feels you should familiarize yourself with:

Asterisk
Free, open-source software that runs under Linux, Mac OS X, and several variants of Unix on computers powered by x86, PowerPC, and other processor types. Provides PBX capabilities for VoIP and (with appropriate interconnection hardware) digital and analog telephone systems.

Auto attendant
Phone feature that transfers calls to the appropriate destination (an extension, voice mail, or recording, for example) without human intervention, by prompting callers to press buttons on their phone keypads or give voice responses such as “yes” or “no.”

Automatic callback This term can refer to a PBX feature that lets employees calling from outside the office avoid long-distance charges. The employee places a short call to the PBX, which calls the individual back using an inexpensive (VoIP) calling plan. Confusingly, the term also refers to a feature that sets a phone to make multiple attempts to reach an unavailable number, alerting the caller when a connection is finally made.

Call barging
Phone feature that allows a third party to break into a phone conversation.
Calling rules. Policies, put in place by the administrator, that determine how the PBX handles incoming and outgoing calls. Some systems let the administrator give users control over subsets of calling rules for their own extensions.

DISA (direct inward system access)
Service provided by PBX systems that lets authorized personnel dial into the PBX from external phones, so they can, for example, place calls through the PBX.

Extension lines
The means by which a PBX parcels out the use of a single telco line to two or more phones in an organization. Each phone has its own number, but actually shares the same telco line. Calls between extensions go through the PBX without tying up an external phone line.

FreePBX
“A standardized implementation of Asterisk that gives you a GUI to manage your system” (definition from freepbx.org). FreePBX gives you a fully functional PBX, saving you the extensive configuration work Asterisk requires.

IAX (inter-Asterisk exchange)
VoIP signaling protocol that provides for control and transmission of streaming media over IP networks. It enables connections between Asterisk servers as well as between servers and clients.

IP PBX (Internet Protocol private branch exchange)
A system that, by using the Internet Protocol over Ethernet networks, provides the same functions as, and often extends the capabilities offered by, traditional PBX installations.

IVR Stands for interactive voice response and is the part of an auto attendant system that provides voice prompts and information to callers and takes action based on the buttons they press on their phone keypads or their spoken answers.

PBX (private branch exchange)
Equipment, located in-house, that connects telephones within an organization to one another and with the external telephone network maintained by the telephone company. The PBX provides call routing, services (such as call forwarding and voice mail), and reporting. It also allows multiple users to share trunk lines.

Provisioning
All the tasks necessary to provide a user or an organization with telecommunications service; may be automated, so as to function with no assistance from a person.

Ring group
A set of extensions that the PBX rings in the order determined by rules the administrator sets.
SIP (session initiation protocol). A set of IP telephony signaling conventions, mostly used for VoIP, but usable for electronic delivery of any multimedia type.

Trunk lines
The generally high-bandwidth communications links connecting two switching systems, such as the one at the telephone company central office and a PBX or between PBX systems. A trunk line carries many voice and data signals simultaneously.

Trunking
An IP PBX’s process of merging data from multiple calls into a single set of packets to reduce transmission overhead.

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
A method of delivering telephone communications over computer networks that exchange information according to transmission rules governing the predominant worldwide network (the Internet).

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V1 VoIP Hosted PBX Glossary Terms and Definitions

V1 VoIP cloud hosted PBX glossary of terms and definitions for common usage

V1 VoIP will help you navigate all the latest terms and definitions that virtual companies will use. VoIP technology is always upgrading and evolving to meet the needs of customers and because of this, new usages, terms and definitions are always emerging. Virtual phone systems and those based on cloud-hosted PBX are evolving at an extremely high rate in the VoIP universe. But did you know that not all providers call items the same things?

When dealing with a virtual phone system, the main terms used are PBX, Hosted PBX and Virtual PBX.
PBX: PBX stands for Private Branch Exchange. A PBX system is simply a telephone system solely for your business. The system will allot a certain number of extensions for the private use of your business. Non-internet PBX systems are run by equipment kept by the business itself.

Hosted PBX: A Hosted PBX system is one that is made available through the internet. Unlike a non-hosted PBX system, your office won’t be required to host telephone equipment because the hosting company does if for you. This will significantly lower the cost while providing the opportunity for easy expansion.

Virtual PBX Phone: A phone with advanced features specifically designed for use with PBX systems. This can include intercom, caller ID, conferencing, call forwarding, as well as other capabilities.

Within these three terms are many others that are associated with it. From features to functions, V1 VoIP has alphabetized list of common PBX terminology:

ACD (Automatic Call Distribution): A system that allows representatives to speak to callers in the order that they call. If you’ve ever called somewhere and had an automated teller announce that “your call will be answered in the order in which it was received,” you have experienced ACD.

Answering Rules: Settings directing how to handle calls. Can include different types of callers (for example, those that are important and others which need to be blocked) or times of day (open hours vs. closed hours).

Auto-Attendant: The virtual secretary who guides your customers to the appropriate party. V1 VoIP offers several options for auto-attendants

Dial-By-Name Directory: A database that allows callers to use their phone keypads to dial the name of the person they want to reach (e.g. 76484 for SMITH).

Extensions: Telephones that are connected to the same line. In some virtual PBX situations, the term can refer to individual phone lines.

Find Me/Follow Me: This is an advanced V1 VoIP virtual PBX system meant to minimize missed calls. Both rely on forwarding callers to different numbers for the person who is being contacted (e.g. office and cell numbers). Some “Follow Me” systems go a step further by determining your location from your internet and phone activity and forwarding the call to the appropriate phone.

Internet Fax: The ability to send and receive faxes over the internet. V1 VoIP internet fax includes receiving faxes via email, so you can always receive these important documents even while you are away from the office.

Porting: The process of moving a phone number to a new telephone service. Contact V1 VoIP to find out about our porting rates.

Toll-Free Number: A number that is free for customers to call. These numbers can include different prefixes, such at 800 and 877.

True 800 Number: A toll-free number that starts with the number 800.

Virtual Number: A number that does not actually connect to a phone number. It might connect to a voice mailbox or automated messages instead. V1 VoIP can also forward virtual numbers to actual phones.

Vanity Number: A phone number that spells a word or a phrase corresponding to letters on a telephone keypad. A great example is 1-800-GOT-JUNK.

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V1 VoIP Introduction to Common Acronyms

If you read the V1 VoIP blog regularly, then you are familiar with the acronyms we use frequently when speaking about the services and solutions we provide. But if you are new to the VoIP industry, a new member of our reseller program, or just someone interested in the technology, then you will want to familiarize yourself with some of the more popularly used acronyms.

The first time I heard the SIP used in conversation, I assumed it meant small increments, as in sipped something. Nope, it’s meaning has a purpose and is one of our more popular services. The following abbreviations are the bread and butter of the VoIP industry. Whether you are making your introduction to VoIP or just looking to familiarize yourself with some of the ones you know–or just pretend to–here are some of the ones you should!

Let’s start with the most important one before we go to alphabetical…
VoIP: Voice over Internet Protocol. VoIP is a family of technologies, methodologies, communication protocols, and transmission techniques for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol networks, such as the Internet. In layman’s terms, it means you are using the Internet for phone service.

ATA: Analog Telephone adapter A device that coverts analog voice signals to digital signals which can then be transmitted over the Internet.

BYOD: Bring Your Own Device Some VoIP providers allow a person to supply their own equipment or ATA.

CDR: Call Record Detail. Details about a specific call that includes duration, origination, destination, and billable information, as well as other pertinent information.

CSR: Customer Service Record. A document required for all phone numbers that will show information that is tied to that number including services, billing activity, associated address and service orders.

DID: Direct Inward Dialing. DID refers to a phone number that a customer subscribes to. A service that allows an enterprise to allocate individual phone numbers to each person within its PBX system.

IVR: Interactive Voice Response. An integrated software information system that speaks to callers and uses menus and voice responses. By using touch-tone keypad entries to interact with the software, you get voice responses with real time data.

LNP: Local Number Portability. It is the ability of a telephone customer to retain their phone number if they switch to another telephone provider.

PBX: Private branch Exchange. In terms of our services: For customers using OnSIP, we create a hosted PBX with our software, while those using our PSTN service must have their own hardware for a PBX.

POTS: Plain Old Telephone Service. POTS Plain Old Telephone System The familiar single phone line, single phone number system that has been in existence for many years.

PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network. As one of our services, PSTN Gateway is a solution for those who implement, own, and manage their own PBX. Everything is on a pay-as-you-go basis, and includes inbound, outbound, and toll-free inbound calling.

SIP: Session Initiation Protocol. SIP is a signaling protocol for Internet conferencing, telephony, and instant messaging. It is a request-response protocol, dealing with requests from clients and responses from servers. initiating an interactive user session.

WAN: Wide Area Network. This refers to telecommunication networks that cover a large area, linking across regional or national boundaries. It is most effective for business and government entities that communicate with employees and customers from various locations.

There is no such thing as a dumb question. If you see a term and you don’t know what it means, please ask us! We are happy to explain what all these letters mean and how they can help you.

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V1 VoIP Cloud Hosted PBX VoIP Glossary

V1 VoIP presents a glossary of terms and definitions about cloud hosted PBX Voip usage and equipmentV1 VoIP offers cloud hosted PBX services and solutions for resellers. PBX is an abbreviation for Private Branch Exchange, a private telephone network used within an enterprise. Users of PBX share a certain number of outside lines for making telephone calls external to the PBX. Most medium-sized and larger companies use a PBX because it’s much less expensive than connecting an external telephone line to every telephone in the organization. In addition, it’s easier to call someone within a PBX because the number you need to dial is typically just 3 or 4 digits.

If you are new to VoIP PBX, here is a list of terms that V1 VoIP feels you should familiarize yourself with:

Asterisk
Free, open-source software that runs under Linux, Mac OS X, and several variants of Unix on computers powered by x86, PowerPC, and other processor types. Provides PBX capabilities for VoIP and (with appropriate interconnection hardware) digital and analog telephone systems.

Auto attendant
Phone feature that transfers calls to the appropriate destination (an extension, voice mail, or recording, for example) without human intervention, by prompting callers to press buttons on their phone keypads or give voice responses such as “yes” or “no.”
Automatic callback. This term can refer to a PBX feature that lets employees calling from outside the office avoid long-distance charges. The employee places a short call to the PBX, which calls the individual back using an inexpensive (VoIP) calling plan. Confusingly, the term also refers to a feature that sets a phone to make multiple attempts to reach an unavailable number, alerting the caller when a connection is finally made.

Call barging
Phone feature that allows a third party to break into a phone conversation.
Calling rules. Policies, put in place by the administrator, that determine how the PBX handles incoming and outgoing calls. Some systems let the administrator give users control over subsets of calling rules for their own extensions.

DISA (direct inward system access)
Service provided by PBX systems that lets authorized personnel dial into the PBX from external phones, so they can, for example, place calls through the PBX.

Extension lines
The means by which a PBX parcels out the use of a single telco line to two or more phones in an organization. Each phone has its own number, but actually shares the same telco line. Calls between extensions go through the PBX without tying up an external phone line.

FreePBX
“A standardized implementation of Asterisk that gives you a GUI to manage your system” (definition from freepbx.org). FreePBX gives you a fully functional PBX, saving you the extensive configuration work Asterisk requires.

IAX (inter-Asterisk exchange)
VoIP signaling protocol that provides for control and transmission of streaming media over IP networks. It enables connections between Asterisk servers as well as between servers and clients.

IP PBX (Internet Protocol private branch exchange)
A system that, by using the Internet Protocol over Ethernet networks, provides the same functions as, and often extends the capabilities offered by, traditional PBX installations.
IVR (interactive voice response). The part of an auto attendant system that provides voice prompts and information to callers and takes action based on the buttons they press on their phone keypads or their spoken answers.

PBX (private branch exchange)
Equipment, located in-house, that connects telephones within an organization to one another and with the external telephone network maintained by the telephone company. The PBX provides call routing, services (such as call forwarding and voice mail), and reporting. It also allows multiple users to share trunk lines.

Provisioning
All the tasks necessary to provide a user or an organization with telecommunications service; may be automated, so as to function with no assistance from a person.

Ring group
A set of extensions that the PBX rings in the order determined by rules the administrator sets.
SIP (session initiation protocol). A set of IP telephony signaling conventions, mostly used for VoIP, but usable for electronic delivery of any multimedia type.

Trunk lines
The generally high-bandwidth communications links connecting two switching systems, such as the one at the telephone company central office and a PBX or between PBX systems. A trunk line carries many voice and data signals simultaneously.

Trunking
An IP PBX’s process of merging data from multiple calls into a single set of packets to reduce transmission overhead.

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
A method of delivering telephone communications over computer networks that exchange information according to transmission rules governing the predominant worldwide network (the Internet).

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V1 VoIP Glossary of Terms – Updated

V1 VoIP offers a glossary of commonly used VoIP definitions and termsV1 VoIP is always updating it’s glossary of common VoIP termonology and definitions. It’s important to us to stay up to date with ever changing technology and pass on that learning to our resellers and wholesalers. Here’s the latest terms being used we want you to be aware of. You can see our glossary of cloud hosted PBX terms by clicking the link.

V1 VoIP Glossary of VoIP Terms

ACD (Average Call Duration)
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
VoIP is a specialised protocol used to transmit voice data over the Internet. It is also commonly used to refer to the act of transmitting voice, and the many related services that have built up around it.
ACD is a quality metric used by telephony providers to show the average length of a call made over their network. V1 VoIP has a high ACD which suggests that few calls are dropped or abandoned due to quality issues.
ASR (Answer / Seizure Ratio)
The Answer / Seizure Ratio is a metric used to measure the quality of a telephony company’s network. It is calculated by dividing the number of successfully answered calls by the total number of calls attempted. A low ASR may suggest a poor quality network, though it can be heavily influenced by user behavior since busy signals and unanswered or rejected calls count as failures. A high ASR ndicates a reliable network, since most calls that are attempted are answered.
Call Termination
Call termination services allow other carriers and telephony companies to pass their VoIP calls onto the PSTN so that they can be answered over a traditional phone line.
Codec
A codec is used to compress and decompress an audio signal before transmitting it over the network. There are a number of different speech codecs used by VoIP carriers.
PDD (Post-Dial Delay)
Post-Dial Delay is the time it takes to receive feedback after a user has finished dialling. This feedback can be in the form of a dial tone, a recorded announcement, or the call being abandoned. V1 VoIP offers resellers a low PDD which gives an improved user experience. Consumers are generally used to the PSTN’s short PDD and often react negatively when there is a long pause after dialling.
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)
The PSTN is the network that makes up the world’s traditional telephone systems. V1 VoIP provides services that allow VoIP resellers to terminate calls onto the PSTN.

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V1 VoIP Definitions for New Resellers

v1 VoIP glossary of commonly used VoIP terms for new resellersV1 VoIP is a premium provider of VoIP services and solutions and we welcome resellers to join our team. Even if you have no experience in the VoIP technology world previously, V1 can give you the tools you need to be a success and all you have to do is sell, sell, sell!

If you are a newbie to the VoIP reseller world… welcome! Here is V1 VoIP’s guide of commonly used definitions you will definitely want to familiarize yourself with as you get started reselling our services and solutions. For instance, did you know that VoIP is an abbreviation for Voice over Internet Protocol? If not, then read on! These terms in alphabetical order and simplified so you can begin your journey in the telephony communications field!

ASR: Short for Answer / Seizure Ratio, it’s the number of successfully answered calls divided by the number of attempted calls.

ATA: Stands for Analogue Telephone Adaptor. A hardware device used to connect a PSTN telephone to the Internet. VoIP gateways and modems perform similar functions.

Bandwidth: The maximum amount of data that can be uploaded/downloaded over a single line over a fixed duration (measured in bits per second).

Broadband: High speed internet via cable TV, DSL, or telecom.

Codec: Short for compression-decompression process; it compacts data into a smaller format for lighter transmission, then unpacks it again at the destination.

Echo-Path Delay: The duration between a transmitted signal and its reflection.

Echo-Path Loss: The difference in signal strength between a transmitted signal and its reflection.

Interactive Voice Response: Commonly abbreviated as IVR, it is a platform that translates a caller’s touch-tones and voice commands into computer information for access over the phone or vice versa. For example, a voice menu that requires a caller to punch in a pin or select an option.

IP: The Internet Protocol dictates how data packets are transmitted over the internet.

IP Address: An Internet Protocol Address is a unique identifier machines use to connect to the Internet. Both fixed and dynamic IP addresses exist, ranging from 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255. IP mapping is the process of geographically locating a device based on its IP address.

Jitter: A temporary transmission flux caused by early or delayed data packets. Read more about troubleshooting jitter here.

Latency: The delay between the initiation and transfer of data.

Packet: A group of datum containing both a destination and source. Packet loss occurs due to latency or switching overload, at which point the data never reaches its destination.

POTS: Easy to remember, it stands for Plain Old Telephone Service and means traditional phone service over the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network).

Router: A network device that stores and forwards packets.

Sampling: A method used to measure and encode analogue signals into a digital format.

SIP: Stands for Session Initiaion Protofol and is standard for initiating, maintaining, and terminating interactive user sessions like video calling, instant messaging, or VoIP.

WiFi Hotspot: A wireless Internet access point, typically found in public, retail, and corporate environments.

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